The total population in U.S. correctional systems dropped in 2019, marking the 12th straight year of declines, according to a Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report published on July 16.

At the end of the year in 2019, there were just over 6.3 million people in U.S. prisons and jails – a roughly 65,000-person (1%) drop from 2018, and around an 895,000-person (12.4%) drop since 2009.

Not since 1999 has the total correctional population been under 6.4 million, and the 2.48 people per 100,000 population is the lowest correctional supervision rate since 1991.

“About 1 in 40 adult U.S. residents (2.5%) were under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2019,” the report said. “This represented a drop from 1 in 32 (3.1%) a decade earlier.”

The majority (around 4.35 million) were in a community-based supervision program, while the rest (around 2.08 million) were in prisons or jails. Of the people in prisons or jails, most (around 1.43 million) were in state or federal prisons, while just over 734,000 were in local jails.

Texas had the largest correctional population (689,300), followed by Georgia (522,300), California (502,600), Pennsylvania (355,000), Florida (360,100), Ohio (315,000) and Michigan (210,100). No other states had over 200,000 people in their correctional system in 2019.

The full report is available here. The data tables are available here.

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