A majority of all but two religious groups in the U.S. reject or express skepticism about Christian nationalism, according to a report published by Public Religion Research Institute and The Brookings Institution on February 8.

White evangelical Protestants and other Protestants of color were the only religious groups who had a majority affirming or expressing some degree of support for Christian nationalism.

“Christian nationalism is a new term for a worldview that has been with us since the founding of our country — the idea that America is destined to be a promised land for European Christians,” Robert P. Jones, president and founder of PRRI, said in a press release announcing the report. “While most Americans today embrace pluralism and reject this anti-democratic claim, majorities of white evangelical Protestants and Republicans remain animated by this vision of a white Christian America.”

To measure respondents’ views of Christian nationalism, the survey asked U.S. adults to indicate if they completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree or completely disagree with the following statements:

  • The U.S. government should declare America a Christian nation.
  • S. laws should be based on Christian values.
  • If the U.S. moves away from our Christian foundations, we will not have a country anymore.
  • Being Christian is an important part of being truly American.
  • God has called Christians to exercise dominion over all areas of American society.

Respondents were placed into one of four groups based on their responses:

  • Adherents: agree or completely agree with all five statements (10% of all respondents)
  • Sympathizers: agree or completely agree with all statements, but with fewer completely agree responses than adherents (19%)
  • Skeptics: disagree or completely disagree with all statements, but with fewer completely disagree responses than rejecters (39%)
  • Rejecters: completely disagree with all five statements (29%)

Only white evangelical Protestants and other protestants of color have a majority of respondents who fall into the adherent or sympathizer groups.

For white evangelical Protestants, 29% are classified as adherents, 35% as sympathizers, 30% as skeptics and 3% rejecters, while the numbers for other Protestants of color are 20%, 32%, 41% and 7%, respectively.

The religiously unaffiliated have the fewest number of adherents (less than 1%) and the third lowest number of sympathizers (6%), while tying with Jewish respondents for both the third highest number of skeptics (31%) and for the highest number of rejecters (61%).

Among Christian traditions, Hispanic Catholics have the lowest number of both adherents (6%) and sympathizers (17%), the second highest number of skeptics (49%, tied with white mainline Protestants) and the highest number of rejecters (28%).

Christian adherents to Christian nationalism are overwhelmingly evangelical or born-again (74%), with non-evangelical Christians making up 14% of adherents.

The number of Christian nationalism adherents and sympathizers increases as the frequency of religious service attendance increases and as religion’s importance in the lives of respondents increases.

Among respondents who never or seldom attend services, 18% are adherents or sympathizers, compared to 36% of adults who attend monthly or a few times annually, and 50% of those who attend at least weekly.

Nearly half (44%) of U.S. adults who say religion is very important in their lives are adherents of Christian nationalism, compared to 24% of sympathizers, 10% of skeptics and 3% of rejects.

The full report is available here. The topline results are available here. The overall margin of error is plus or minus 1.6 percentage points.

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